xSub welcomes and encourages deposits of original digital data that can take three forms: 1) newly collected event data on conflict and violence; 2) updates and expansions to existing datasets; or 3) new administrative units/boundary files. To be considered for inclusion, the data must be the authors’ original work, and must not contain any information that is proprietary, confidential or personally identifies individual human subjects. Ideally, the data will also help deepen or expand the geographic, historical and substantive scope of content available to users through xSub.
If you have questions about whether your dataset is an appropriate fit for xSub, please contact us directly at .
Deposits should include all data and documentation necessary to independently read and interpret the data collection. Deposits must include the following files:
ReadMe document (
.txt format), which includes a brief description of each uploaded file.
The spatial and temporal units of the data (e.g. event location and date, country-year, etc.).
A description of each variable included in the dataset. All variables in the data collection should have a set of consistent, mutually-exclusive codes. Variable labels and value labels should clearly describe the information or question recorded in that variable. Missing data codes should be defined.
A list of sources and methods that thoroughly explain the data collection process. First, depositors should include the sources they used to collect data for each variable. Examples of such sources include but are not limited to the reports by media, government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), interviews and surveys. Second, depositors should specify the method they used to code the data, with enough detail to allow others with the same raw information to closely replicate your work. For example, if the data were machine-coded, the description should specify the algorithm, workflow and validation procedures. If human-coded, the description should describe the coding protocols and quality control measures (e.g. inter-coder reliability checks). If hybrid/semi-automated, descriptions should specify both, as appropriate. If depositors added new variables to existing datasets already included in xSub, they should specify which version of the existing dataset they used.
Proper citation information that specifies how to cite the original deposited data (and other data sources used in their creation, as applicable).
Data File (preferably
.csv format). xSub encourages depositors to submit data files in delimited text, ESRI Shapefile, RData, SPSS, and/or Stata format. If the data are of individual events, deposited data should include the variables listed below. If depositors cannot provide information on any of the following categories, they should explain in their codebook why it is the case.
Actors involved in each event, classified according to the following four categories, using dummy variables:
SIDE_A: incumbent government, pro-government militia, third party acting on incumbent’s behalf
SIDE_B: opposition, rebels, anti-government militia, third party acting on rebels’ behalf, and other armed groups directly challenging the government
SIDE_D: local militia, tribe, other non-state and external actors not directly supporting or challenging the government
Initiators and Targets of event (where known), with dummy variables corresponding to sides A-D
INITIATOR_A: action was initiated by
INITIATOR_D: action was initiated by
TARGET_A: target of action was
TARGET_D: event was initiated by
Action/Tactics used in event, with dummy variables. The xSub Codebook details which actions each of these four categories include.
ACTION_ANY: any use of force
ACTION_IND: indirect/indiscriminate violence
ACTION_DIR: direct/selective violence
Geolocation information. Researcher can either submit already geo-located data (e.g. with variables for latitude and longitude) or include location information (e.g., street name, city name, etc.) that can be easily used to geo-locate deposited data
Time information. Date of event, in YYYYMMDD, YYYYMM or YYYY format.
Geographic precision of event (e.g. country, province, village, house)
Temporal precision of event (e.g. year, month, week, day)
Sources, providing web links or other information on sources used to collect data.
For questions about how best to prepare your data for submission, please contact us directly ( ). Please also contact us before uploading files in excess of 100MB.
After a data collection is deposited to xSub, the project team will review the data and documentation. If everything is in compliance with the above criteria and quality standards, our team will approve the deposited data for distribution on the xSub website, and will coordinate with depositors on any additional pre-release processing and documentation requirements.
Please use our secure data deposit form to upload the data and all supporting documentation.