How to Cite

When using data from the xSub archive, please cite both the original data source you are using and the xSub project.

Citation information for xSub

Citation information for data sources featured in xSub

  • American Bar Association / Darfur

    • Totten, Samuel. “The US Investigation into the Darfur Crisis and the US Government’s Determination of Genocide.” Genocide Studies and Prevention 1, no. 1 (2006): 57-78.

  • Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED)

    • Raleigh, Clionadh, Andrew Linke, Hvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen. “Introducing ACLED: An armed conflict location and event dataset special data feature.” Journal of Peace Research 47, no. 5 (2010): 651-660.

  • Beissinger / Protest

    • Beissinger, Mark R. Nationalist mobilization and the collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

  • Beissinger / Riot

    • Beissinger, Mark R. Nationalist mobilization and the collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

  • Beissinger / Ukraine

    • Beissinger, Mark R. Nationalist mobilization and the collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Afghanistan / WITS

    • Wigle, John. “Introducing the worldwide incidents tracking system (WITS).” Perspectives on Terrorism 4, no. 1 (2010).

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Iraq / SIGACT

    • Eli Berman, Jacob N. Shapiro, and Joseph H. Felter, “Can Hearts and Minds Be Bought? The Economics of Counterinsurgency in Iraq,” Journal of Political Economy 119, no. 4 (August 2011).

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Iraq / WITS

    • Wigle, John. “Introducing the worldwide incidents tracking system (WITS).” Perspectives on Terrorism 4, no. 1 (2010).

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Mexico / Drug-Related Murders

    • Calderón, Gabriela, Gustavo Robles, Alberto Díaz-Cayeros, and Beatriz Magaloni. “The beheading of criminal organizations and the dynamics of violence in Mexico.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59, no. 8 (2015): 1455-1485.

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Pakistan / BFRS

    • de Mesquita, Bueno, Ethan C. Christine Fair, Jenna Jordan, Rasul Bakhsh Rais, and Jacob N. Shapiro. “The BFRS Political Violence in Pakistan Dataset.” (2013).

  • Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) / Pakistan / WITS

    • Wigle, John. “Introducing the worldwide incidents tracking system (WITS).” Perspectives on Terrorism 4, no. 1 (2010).

  • Ferwerda and Miller

    • Ferwerda, Jeremy, and Nicholas L. Miller. “Political devolution and resistance to foreign rule: A natural experiment.” American Political Science Review 108, no. 03 (2014): 642-660.

  • National Violence Monitoring System (NVMS) Indonesia

    • Barron, Patrick, Sana Jaffrey, and Ashutosh Varshney. “When Large Conflicts Subside: The Ebbs and Flows of Violence in Post-Suharto Indonesia.” Journal of East Asian Studies 16, no. 02 (2016): 191-217.

  • Political Instability Task Force / Worldwide Atrocities Dataset

    • Schrodt, Philip A. and Jay Ulfelder, “Political Instability Task Force Atrocities Event Data Collection,” Version 1.1b1 (September 12, 2016)

  • Social Conflict Analysis Database (SCAD)

    • Salehyan, Idean, Cullen S. Hendrix, Jesse Hamner, Christina Case, Christopher Linebarger, Emily Stull, and Jennifer Williams. “Social conflict in Africa: A new database.” International Interactions 38, no. 4 (2012): 503-511.

  • UCDP / Georeferenced Event Dataset

    • Sundberg, Ralph, and Erik Melander. “Introducing the UCDP Georeferenced Event Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 50, no. 4 (2013): 523-532.

  • Zhukov / North Caucasus

    • Toft, Monica Duffy, and Yuri M. Zhukov. “Islamists and nationalists: Rebel motivation and counterinsurgency in Russia’s North Caucasus.” American Political Science Review 109, no. 02 (2015): 222-238.

  • Zhukov / Chechnya

    • Zhukov, Yuri M. Theory of Indiscriminate Violence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University (2014).

  • Zhukov / Libya

    • Baum, Matthew A., and Yuri M. Zhukov. “Filtering revolution: Reporting bias in international newspaper coverage of the Libyan civil war.” Journal of Peace Research 52, no. 3 (2015): 384-400.

  • Zhukov / Ukraine

    • Zhukov, Yuri M. “Trading hard hats for combat helmets: The economics of rebellion in eastern Ukraine.” Journal of Comparative Economics 44, no. 1 (2016): 1-15.

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  • All data or images produced by xSub or acquired through the xSub website should be acknowledged, and cited in accordance with guidelines described in the How to Cite section above.
  • None of the data or images acquired through the xSub website may be distributed or used for any commercial purpose, without express permission from xSub project leadership, and the corresponding data provider listed on the Data Sources web page.